Azolla as an invasive species

Azolla has been designated as an invasive species in some regions or countries.

It is essential to not introduce any species or subspecies of azolla into regions or countries where it has been designated as an invasive species.

Details of countries where azolla species and subspecies have been designated as an invasive species are given in the Invasive Species Compendium (ISC).  Although every effort is made to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date listing, the ISC and the Azolla Foundation do not take responsibility for the information given on their websites, because legislation is constantly being updated in different countries regarding the designation of individual azolla species as being invasive.

The ISC lists three azolla species in its compendium of invasive species. Details of these species are given on these pages of the ISC website: A. filiculoides, A. mexicana and A. pinnata, and they are also summarized on these pages of the Azolla Foundation website for A. filiculoides, A. mexicana and A. pinnata.

The Invasive Species Compendium has the following International Development Consortium members and partners:

Consortium members

Australia, Group Membership [Cooperative Research Centre for National Plant Biosecurity (CRCNPB)The Grains Research & Development Corporation (GRDC)Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL)Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre (IACRC)]
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
Canadian Forest Service (CFS)
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
Caribbean Plant Health Directors Forum (CPHD Forum) / European Commission (DG Environment)
France, Ministère de l’Écologie, du Développement Durable, des Transports  et du Logement (MEDDTL), Government of France
India, Ministry of Agriculture
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI)
Mexico, National Health, Safety and Quality Service for Agri-Food (SENASICA)
Mexico, Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO)
Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation
Secretariat of the Pacific Community
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
Syngenta Crop Protection
UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra)
UK Department for International Development (DFID) partner with CABI and Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA)
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS)
United States Department of Agriculture – Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS)
United States Department of Agriculture – Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA-FAS)
United States Department of Agriculture – Forest Service (USDA-FS)
United States Department of Agriculture – Invasive Species Co-ordination Program
United States Department of Agriculture – Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS)
United States Department of Agriculture – Rural Development (USDA-RD)
United States Department of Commerce – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service (NOAA)
United States Department of Interior – Fish and Wildlife Service


European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO)
Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)

Data for individual species

A list of data provided by ISC for individual species is given on this page of its website.

These include the following:

Basic Datasheets: Basic datasheets are available for species that are invasive (but not yet populated with full data) or are associated with invasive species, threatened species, country datasheets, pathway datasheets and habitats. Data have been downloaded from CAB Abstracts and other reference databases by a process of ‘data mining’ and automatic cross-checking. This data may provide useful indications of the identity, distribution and relationships of these entries, but it must be noted that not all the data in this form have been manually checked by CABI editorial team.

Distribution Maps 
For detailed datasheets, geographic distributions have been researched by individual contributors and when available.

Definitions used in the Invasive Species Compendium

The following working definitions have been applied during the development of this compendium.

Invasive (alien) species: an (alien) species whose establishment and spread threaten ecosystems, habitats or species with economic or environmental harm. 

Introduced species (alien, non-native): A species, subspecies or lower taxon, introduced outside its natural past or present distribution; includes any part, gametes, seeds, eggs, or propagules of such species that might survive and subsequently reproduce.

Native species: A species, subspecies, or lower taxon, occurring within its natural range (past or present) and dispersal potential (i.e. within the range it occupies naturally or could occupy without direct or indirect introduction or care by humans.)