Scientific Publications

This list only includes scientific papers and publications referenced on the website.

Alalade, O. A. & Iyayi, E. E. 2006. Chemical composition and the feeding value of Azolla (Azolla pinnata) Meal for egg-type chicks. International Journal of Poultry Science,vol. 5, no. 2. pp.137-141.

Alcantara, P. F. & Querubin, L. J. 1985. Feeding value of azolla meal for broilers. Philippine Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, vol. 11, pp. 1-8.

Ansari, M. A. & Sharma, V. P. 1991. Role of azolla in controlling mosquito breeding in Ghaziabad District villages (U.P.). Indian J. Malariol., vol. 28, pp. 51-54.

Antunes, A. P. M., Watkins, G. M. & Duncan, J. R. 2001. Batch studies on the removal of gold (III) from aqueous solution by Azolla filiculoides. Biotechnology Letters, vol. 23, pp. 249-251.

Barke, J. van der Burgh, J. van Konijnenburg-van C., Johanna H.A., Collinson, M.E.l, Pearce, M.A., Bujak, J.P., Heilmann-Clausen, C., Speelman, E., N; van Kempen, M.M.L., Reichart, G.-J., Lotter, A.F., Brinkhuis, H. 2012.  Coeval Eocene blooms of the freshwater fern azolla in and around Arctic and Nordic seas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 337-338, 108-119.

Basak, B., Pramanik, A. H., Rahmnan, M. S., Taradar, S. U. & Roy. B.C. 2002. Azolla (Azolla pinnata) as a feed ingredient in broiler ration. Int. J. Poult. Sci., vol. 1, pp. 29-24.

Becerra, M. , Preston, T. R. & Ogle, B. 1995. Effect of replacing whole boiled soya beans with azolla in the diets of growing ducks. Livestock Research and Rural Development, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1-10.

Ben-Amotz, A. 2008. Bio-fuel and CO2 capture by algae. NASA publication, November 20, 2008.

Brinkhuis, H., Schouten, S., Collinson, M.E., Sluijs, A., Damsté, J.S.S., Dickens, G.R., Huber, M., Cronin, T.M., Onodera, J., Takahashi, K., Bujak, J.P., Stein, R., van der Burgh, J., Eldrett, J.S., Harding, I.C., Lotter, A.F., Sangiorgi, F., van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, H., de Leeuw, J.W., Matthiessen, J., Backman, J.U., Moran, K. & the Expedition 302 Scientists. 2006. Episodic fresh surface waters in the early Eocene Arctic Ocean. Nature, June 1, pp. 606-609.

Bujak, A. A. 2012. Optimum harvesting times of Azolla filiculoides to maximize CO2 sequestration in a controlled environment.  Unpublished undergraduate dissertation, Manchester University, pp. 1-49.

Bujak, J. P. 2007. The Azolla Story: climate change and Arctic hydrocarbons. GeoExPro Magazine, September 2007, pp. 66-72.

Carrapiço, F. 1991. Are bacteria the third partner of the Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis? P1. & Soil, vol. 137, pp. 157-160.

Carrapiço, F. 2002. The Azolla-Anabaena-Bacteria System as a Natural Microcosm. Proceedings of SPIE, no. 4495, pp. 261-265.

Carrapiço, F. 2010. Azolla as a superorganism. Its implication in the symbiotic studies. In “Stress Biology”. Seckbach, J. and Grube, M. (Eds). Published by Springer.

Castillo, L. S., Gerpacio, A. L. & Pascual, F. S. D.  1981. Exploratory studies on azolla and fermented rice hulls in broiler diets. College Laguna (Philippines), 6 pp.

Cohen, M. F., Williams, J. & Yamasaki, H. 2002. Biodegradation of diesel fuel by an azolla-derived bacterial consortium. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, vol. 37, pp. 1953-1606.

Collinson, M.E., Barke, J., van der Burgh, J. & van Konijnenburg-van Cittert. 2009. A new species of the freshwater fern Azolla (Azollaceae) from the Eocene Arctic Ocean. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, vol. 155 (1-2), pp. 1-14.

Costa, M.M., Conceição Santos, M & Carrapiço, F. 1999. Biomass characterization of Azolla filiculoides grown in natural ecosystems and wastewater. Hydrobiologia, vol. 415, pp. 323–327.

Costa, M.L., Santos, M.C., Carrapiço, F. & Pereira, A.L. 2009. Azolla–anabaena’s behaviour in urban wastewater and artificial media – Influence of combined nitrogen. Water Research, vol. 43, pp. 3743-3750.

Dao, T. T., and Tran, Q. T. 1966. Introducing azolla into the crop rotation of rice growing areas as a major crop. Khoa Hoc Ky Thuat Nong Nghiep (Agricultural Science and Technology), vol. 59, pp. 654-658.

Dao, T. T. & Tran, Q. T. 1979. Use of azolla in rice production in Vietnam. In Nitrogen and Rice, ed. IRRI, pp. 395-405.

Das, D., Sikdar, K. & Chetterjee, A. K.. 1994. Potential of Azolla pinnata as biogas generator and as a fish-feed. Indian J. Environm. Health, vol. 36, pp. 186-191.

Dawson, J. J. C. &Smith, P. 2007. Carbon losses from soil and its consequences for land-use management. Science of the Total Environment 382 (2–3), 165–190.

Doornbosch, R. & Steenblik, R. 2007. Round Table on Sustainable Development. Biofuels: Is the Cure Worse Than the Disease? Report No. SG/SD/RT (2007)3/REV1.

Edwards, D.J. 1974. Weed preference and growth of young grass carp in New Zealand. New Zealand. J. Marine Freshwater Res., vol. 8, pp.  341-350.

Edwards, D.J. 1975. Taking a bite at the waterweed problem. New Zealand J. Agric., vol. 130, pp. 33-36.

Fasuyi, A. O. & Aletor, V. A. 2005. Protein replacement value of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaf protein concentrate (CLPC) in broiler starter: Effect on performance, muscle growth, haematology and serum metabolites. Int. J. Poult. Sci., vol. 4, pp. 339-349.

Fiogbe, E. D., Micha, J.-C. & Van Hove, C. 2004. Use of a natural aquatic fern, Azolla microphylla, as a main component in food for the omnivorous–phytoplanktonophagous tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. J. Appl. Ichthyol., vol. 20, pp. 517–520.

Forni, C., Gentili, S. Van Hove, C. & Grilli-Caiola, M. 1990. Isolation and characterization of the bacteria living in the sporocarps of Azolla filiculoides Lain. Ann. Microbiol. Enzimol., vol. 40, pp. 235-244.

Gallagher Review Executive Summary. 2008.

Hills., L. V. & Gopal  B, 1967. Azolla primaeva and its phylogenetic significance. Canadian Journal of Botany, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1179-1191.

Ismall, B. S., Sew, T. C. & Mnshrlfah., I. 1995. Effect of molinate and carbofuran on nitrogen fixation by Azolla pinnata. Microhios, vol. 82, pp. 127-134.

Jane, S. K., Vasudevan, P. & Jha, N. K. 1989. Removal of some heavy metals from polluted water by aquatic plants: Studies on duckweed and water velvet. Biol. Wastes, vol. 28 pp. 115-126.

Kamalasanana Pillai, Premalatha, S. & Rajamony, S. 2002. Azolla – A sustainable feed substitute for livestock. Leisa India, March, 2002, pp. 15-17.

Kannaiyan, S. & Kumar, K. 2005. Azolla Biofertilizer for Sustainable Rice Production. Daya Publishing House, Delhi, India.

Katayama, N. M., Kishida, Y., Liu, C.-C., Watanabe, I. & Wada, H. 2008. Azolla as a component of the space diet during habitation on Mars. Acta Astronautica. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2008.01.023

Khosravi, M., Rakhshaee, R. & Taghi Ganju, M.  2005. Pre-treatment processes of Azolla filiculoides to remove Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and ZN(II) from aqueous solution of batch and  fixed-bed reacters. J. Hazard. Mater.  doi10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.07.123.

Kleiner, K. 2007. The backlash against biofuels. Nature Reports Climate Change. Published online 12 December 2007.

Knies, J., Mann, U., Popp, B. N., Stein, R. & Brumsack, H-J. 2008. Surface water productivity and paleoceanographic implications in the Cenozoic Arctic Ocean. Paleoceanography, vol. 23, PAIS 16.

Krock, T., Alkamper, J. & Watanabe, I. 1991. Azolla’s contribution to weed control in rice cultivation. P1. Res. Developm., vol. 34, pp. 117-125.

Liu, C. C. 1979. Use of azolla in rice production in China. In: Nitrogen and Rice, ed. I Watanabe, pp. 375-394. IRRI, Los Banos.

Liu, X., Chen, M., Bian, Z. & Liu., C.-C. 2008. Studies on urine treatment by biological purification using azolla and UV photocatalytic oxidation. Advances in Space Research 41, pp. 783–786.

Liu, X., Min, C., Xia-Shi, L. & Chungchu, L. 2008.  Research on some functions of azolla in CELSS system, Acta Astronautica, doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2008.03.001

Lumpkin, T. A. & Plucknett, D. L. 1980. Azolla: Botany, physiology and use as a green manure. Econ. Bot., vol. 34, pp. 111-153.

Lumpkin, T. A. & Plucknett, D. L. 1982. Azolla as a green manure: Use and management in crop production. Westview  Press, Boulder, Colorado.

Moore, A. W. 1969. Azolla: Biology and agronomic significance. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster), vol. 37, pp. 17-34.

Paoletti, C. Bocci, F. Lercker, G. Capella, P. & Materassi, R., 1987. Lipid composition of Azolla caroliniana biomass and its seasonal variation. Phytochemistry 26, pp. 1045–1047. Spotte, S., 1979: Seawater Aquariums. John Wiley

Pereira, A. L. & Carrapiço, F., 2009. Culture of Azolla filiculoides in artifical conditions. Plant Biosystems vol. 143, pp. 431-434.

Peters, G .A. & Meeks, J. C. 1989. The azolla-anabaena symbiosis: basic biology. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol., vol. 40, pp. 193-210.

Peters, G. A., Toia, J.R, R. E., Evans, W. R. Crist, D. K., Mayne, B. C. & Poole, R. E. 1980: Characterization and comparisons of five Na-fixing azolla-anabaena associations, I. Optimization of growth conditions for biomass increase and N content in a controlled environment. Plant, Cell and Environment. 3, 261-269

Prabu, M. J. 2007. Amazing azolla acquires an alternative ‘avatar’. The Hindu, September 20, 2007.

Prasanna, R., Kumar, V., Kumar, S., Yadav, A. K., Tripathi, U., Singh A. K., M. C. Jain, M. C., Gupta, P., Singh, P. K. & Sethunathan, N. 2002. Methane production in rice soil is inhibited by cyanobacteria. Microbiol. Res., vol. 157, pp. 1-6.

Querubin, L. J., Alcantara, P. F. & Princesa, A. O. 1986. Chemical composition of three Azolla species (A. caroliniana, A.microphylla and A. pinnata) and feeding value of azolla meal (A. microphylla) in broiler rations II. Philippine Agriculture, vol. 69, pp. 479-490.

Rajendran, R. & Reuben, R. 1988. Laboratory evaluation of the water fern, Azolla pinnata for mosquito control. L Biol. Control, vol. 2, pp. 116-116.

Reinhardt, G., Rettenmaier, N., Gärtner, S. & Pastowski, A. 2007. Rainforest for Biodiesel? Ecological Effects of Using Palm Oil as a Source of Energy (World Wildlife Fund Germany, Frankfurt, 2007).

Righelato, R. & Spracklen, D.V. 2007. Carbon mitigation by biofuels or by saving and restoring forests? Science 317: 902.

Saxena, D. K. 1995. Purification efficiency of Lemna and Azolla for WIMCO effluent, prec. Natl. Acad. Sci. India, vol. B65, pp. 61-65.

Sculthorpe, C. D. 1967. The biology of aquatic vascular plants. Edward Arnold, London.

Shiomi, N. & Kitoh, S. 2001. Azolla in a pond, nutrient composition, and use as fish food.  Soil Sci, Plant Nutr,, vol. 47(1), pp. 27-34.

Singh, P. K. 1977. Azolla plants as fertilizer and feed. Indian Farming, vol. 27, pp. 19-22.

Singh, P, K., Singh, D. P. & Singh, R. P. 1992. Growth, acetylene reduction activity, nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase activity of Azolla caroliniana and Azolla pinnata at varying nitrate levels. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen., vol. 188, pp. 121-127.

Small, E. & Darbyshire, S.J. 2011. Blossoming treasures of biodiversity. 35. Mosquito Ferns (azolla species) – tiny ‘super plants. Biodiversity, vol. 12 (2), pp. 119–128.

Smith, B. 1995. The emergence of agriculture. Scientific American Library.

Speelman , E.N., Van Kempen, M.M., Barke, J., Brinkhuis, H., Reichart, G.J., Smolders, A.J., Roelofs, J.G., Sangiori, F., de Leeuw, J.W., Lotter, A.F. & Sinninghe Damste, J.S. 2009. The Eocene Arctic Azolla bloom: environmental conditions, productivity and carbon drawdown. Geobiology, vol. 7(2), pp.155-170. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4669.2009.00195.x.

Subudhi, B & Singh, P. 1978. Nutritive value of the water fern Azolla pinnata for chicks.  Poultry Science, vol. 57, pp. 123-124.

Sweet, A. & Hills., L. V. 1971. A study of Azolla pinnata R. Brown. Amer. Fern J., vol. 61, pp. 1-13.

Tamang, Y. & Samanta, G. 1993. Feeding value of azolla (Azolla pinnata) an aquatic fern in Black Bengal goats. Indian J. Anim. Sci., vol. 63, pp. 188-191.

Tamany, Y., Samanta, G., Chakraborty, N. & Mondal, L. 1992. Nutritive value of azolla (Azolla pinnata) and its potentiality of feeding in goats. Environment and Ecology, vol. 10, pp. 755-756

Tran, Q. T. & Dao, T. T. 1973. azolla: A green compost. Vietnamese Studies 38, Agric. Problems. Agron. Data 4:, pp. 119-127.

Van Hove, C. 1989. Azolla and its multiple uses with emphasis on Africa. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.

Umali, L. J., Duncan, J. R. & Burgess, J. E. 2006. Performance of dead Azolla filiculoides biomass in bioabsorption of Au from wastewater. Biotechnology Letters, vol. 28, pp. 45-49.

Van Hove, C. &  Lopez, Y. 1982. Fisiologia de Azolla. In: Workshop on the assessment of azolla use in tropical Latin America. Chicklayo: Peru.

Varghese, T. J., Devaraj. K. V. & Shantharam, B. 1976. Relative growth of the grass carp, Ctenophaogodon idella (Val.) fed on Utriclaria and a mixture of Azolla and Lemna. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India, vol.  8, pp. 206-211.

Yatazawa, M., Tomomatsu, N., Hosoda, M. & Nuome, K. 1980. Nitrogen fixation in Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis as effected by mineral nutrient status. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., vol. 26, pp. 415-426.

Westerberg, K., Elvang, A.M., Stackebrandt, E. & Jansson, J.K. 2000. Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus sp. nov., a new species capable of degrading high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol”. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 50, pp. 2083–2092.